Prismo is just a dream of a wrinkled old man

爱国主义是美德吗?

概念两极:

因好而爱:将国家视为推进某项价值(自由、文明)的手段(区别于爱国主义:真正的关注对象是普世价值;世界主义,不一定要求热爱祖国)

因爱而好:盲目爱国主义,价值得到承认的唯一标准是“这是我们的价值”

概念定位:

爱国是一种忠诚,爱国与其他形式的忠诚(友谊、对婚姻的忠贞、对特定社团的热爱)涉及一种特定的感激之情而非建立在利益互惠上的泛泛而谈的感激

爱国主义与国家所取得的成就或爱国者从国家中所获益处之间的关系为何?

道德:道德地思考与行动要求中立性,即将主体从社会关系与立场中抽象出来 → 爱国主义与道德在根本上存在矛盾→中立自由主义道德理论:爱国主义应当受中立的道德视角制约

  问题:爱国主义与中立道德视角的冲突

资源竞争

殖民地狱征服:对原住民生存方式的干涉

反思道德中立性假设:

  道德中立性:1.道德是在理想条件下任何理性人都会赞同的规则;2.道德自身不表达任何特定利益;3.道德对何谓人类理想的生活方式保持中立;4.道德的对象与主体是个人,人人平等;5. 道德具有普世性

中立性是否是道德唯一的理解方式?

道德中立性与政治自由主义、社会个人主义的兴起直接相关

自由主义道德:

道德信念从何而来与道德的内容及我对道德的忠诚无涉(道德原则可类比于数学定理)

道德的语境性:道德在一定社群中习得,道德的表达具有特殊性

自由主义的反驳:道德的有效性在于它是普遍真理的特殊表达,将个人视为道德主体意味着摆脱特定的偏见

对反驳的反驳:

证成道德所需的“善”的观念同样具有特殊性

道德是一种风气  I can only be a moral agent because we are moral agents

总结:a.道德是特定社群观念的表达,b.证成道德的语汇具有语境性,c.只有通过社群才能维系人的道德感→ 爱国主义是一项美德

If first of all it is the case that I can only apprehend the rules of morality in the version in which they are incarnated in some specific community; and if secondly it is the case that the justification of morality must be in terms of particular goods enjoyed within the life of particular communities; and if thirdly it is the case that I am characteristically brought into being and maintained as a moral agent only through the particular kinds of moral sustenance afforded by my community, then it is clear that  deprived of this community, I am unlikely to flourish as a moral agent. Hence my allegiance to the community and what it requires of meeven to the point of requiring me to die to sustain its life-could not meaningfully be contrasted with or counterposed to what morality required of me.

(?假定从家族之爱到社群之爱再到国家之爱存在天然序列)

抽象道德主体是否可辩护?

(主体:不仅是无偏见观察者,也是无偏见行动者)

自由主义:抽象道德主体是道德自由的必要条件。社会文本存在,但社会文本对主体不具有构成性,任何实践与道德都必须经过检验(超越性从本体论到认识论)→ 爱国主义将未经检验的激情作为基础,具有道德上的危险性

反驳:

未经检验:不是指在特定场合下不加批判地对待某物,而是指某物可免于批判——问题:此物为何?

           国家权力与政府机构从来不是免于批判的对象 ,免于批判的是作为一个计划的国家(The answer is: the nation conceived as a proJect, a project somehow or other brought to birth in the past and carried on so that a morally distinctive community was brought into being which embodied a claim to political  autonomy in its various organized and institutionalised expressions.)

          人可以对一个尚未独立的国家抱有忠诚,忠于国家与反对政府不存在矛盾

( Only this allegiance is unconditional and allegiance to particular governments or forms of government or particular leaders will be entirely conditional upon their being devoted to furthering that project rather than frustrating or destroying it. )

       进一步的问题:国家与理念的断裂(类似的问题:不正义的法律是不是法律)

( to choose between the claims of the project which constitutes his or her nation and the claims of the morality that he or she has learnt as a member of the community whose life is informed by that project )

抽象道德主体同样存在危险性:将国家视为利益互惠形成的市场,破坏共同体联系

          共同体为何重要?集体记忆所形成的个体身份;牺牲的必要性(军事)

自由主义对爱国主义:将国家置于理性审视之外是非理性的;爱国主义对自由主义:理性反省破坏了共同体的纽带

(For while the liberal moralist was able to conclude that patriotism is a permanent source of moral danger because of the way it places our ties to our nation beyond rational criticism, the moralist who defends patriotism is able to conclude that liberal morality is a permanent source of moral danger because of the way it renders our social and moral ties too open to dissolution by rational criticism. And each party is in fact in the right against the other.)

伦理学论证不具备实践的即时性

黑格尔 风俗与道德

矛盾的不可避免

For a morality of particularist ties and solidarities has been conflated with a morality of universal, impersonal and impartial principles in a way that can never be carried through without incoherence.

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